Vitamins and minerals

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NutrientRDA or DRIFunctions in the Body/BenefitsDietary Sources
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Vitamin A Retinol, beta-caroteneand various other carotenoidsRDA Males: 1000 ug RE Females: 800 UGREHelps maintaingoodvision (necessary for night vision), resistance toinfections, andsupports growthandrepair ofbodytissues. Also maintains integrityof white and red blood cells, assists in immune reactions,helps maintainthe stability of cellmembranes.Milk, eggs, meat, fish liver oils. Beta-caroteneand other carotenoids arefoundin: Green leafy vegetables -kale,spinach,broccoli,collardgreens, parsley, turnip greens, escarole.Yellow vegetables carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash, pumpkin. Yellow and orange fruits- mango, cantaloupe, papaya, and apricots.
Vitamin D Cholecal-ciferol,ergocalciferolDRI Males: 5.0 ug Females: 5.0 ugMember of a large andcooperative bone-makingandbonemaintenance team. Regulates absorptionof calcium andphosphorus for bone health.Formed in skin when exposedtosunlight.Also found in dairy products, egg yolk,fish liver oils, tuna,mackerel, herring, sardines,oysters, yeast.
Vitamin E Tocopherol, TocotrienolsRDA Males: 10 mg α-TE Females: 8 mg α-TEFat-solubleantioxidant.Helps maintain cellmembranes, redblood cell integrity,protects vitamin Aand fatty acids fromoxidation.Found primarily in plant oils, green, leafy vegetables, wheatgerm, whole grains, egg yolk, nuts,seeds,and liver.
Vitamin KRDA Males: 80 ug Females: 65 ugHelps make factors that promote blood clottingBacterial synthesis in the digestive tract. Diet generally supplies remaining need. Green, leafy vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables and milk.
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Vitamin B1 ThiamineDRI Males: 1.2 mg Females: 1.1mHelps metabolize carbohydrates, maintain appetite and normal digestion. Part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism. Supports normal appetite and nervous system function.Found in many foods: wholegrain cereals, legumes, beans, nuts, brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, pork, ham, and liver.
Vitamin B2 RiboflavinDRI Males: 1.3 mg Females: 1.1mgPart of coenzymes used in energy metabolism, supports normal vision and skin health.Milk, yogurt, other dairy, meat, leafy greens, whole grains
Vitamin B3 Niacin, nicotinic acid, niacinamideDRI Males: 16 mg NE Females: 14mg NEPart of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism, supports health of skin, nervous system and digestive system. High(pharmacological) doses may help manage cholesterol.Tuna,dairy, meat, whole grains, nuts and all protein containing foods.
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic AcidDRI Males: 5.0 mg Females: 5.0mgPart of Coenzyme A, which is used in energy metabolismWide spread in foods
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, other formsDRI Males: 1.3 mg Females: 1.3mgPart of a coenzyme that helps the body synthesize nonessential amino acids. Significant role in protein metabolism.Green leafy vegetables, meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, legumes, fruits, whole grains.
Vitamin B12 CobalaminDRI Males: 2.4 ug Females: 2.4 ugPart of coenzymes used in new cell synthesis; helps tomainta in nerve cells.Animal products (meat, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, cheese, milk).
BiotinDRI Males: 30 ug Females: 30 ugPart of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism ,fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism and glycogen synthesis.Widespread in foods
Folic acid Folate, folacinDRI Males: 400 ug Females: 400 ugPart of coenzymes used in new cell synthesis. Essential for bloodcell formation, protein metabolism, and prevention of neuraltube defects.Green leafy vegetables ,liver, fortified grain products, legumes and seeds.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)RDA Males: 60 mg Females: 60mgEssential element incollagen formation(strengthens bloodvessels, forms scar tissue, is a matrixfor bone growth); an antioxidant; strengthens resistance to infections; and improves absorptionofiron.Abundant inmost fresh fruits(esp. citrus) and vegetables.

SELECTED MINERALS
BoronNO RDA or DRIBone health,preventionof osteoporosis.Non-citrusfruits,leafyvegetables.
CalciumDRI Males: 1000 mg Females: 1000mgThe principal mineral of bones and teeth, also involved innormal muscle contraction(including heart muscle).Milk andmilk products, small fish with bones, tofu, broccoli, chard andlegumes.
ChlorideNo RDA or DRIAn electrolyte that maintains normal fluid balance and proper acid-base balance, part of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach.Salt, soy sauce, moderate quantities in whole, unprocessed foods and large amounts in processed foods.
ChromiumNo RDA or DRIAssociated with insulin and required for the release of energy from glucose.Brewer’s yeast, unrefined wholegrain cereals, fats, vegetable oils.
NutrientRDA or DRIFunctions in the Body/BenefitsDietary Sources
FluorideDRI Males: 3.8 mg Females: 3.1mgInvolved in the formation of bones and teeth.Drinking water (if fluoridated)tea, seafood.
IodineRDA Males: 150 ug Females: 150 ugEssential component of thyroid hormones that regulate tissue growth and cell activity.Iodized salt, seafood, plants
IronRDA Males: 10 mg Females: 15mgPart of the protein haemoglobin which carries O2inthe body. Part of the protein myoglobin in muscle which makes O2 available for muscle contraction. Necessary for the utilisation of energy as part of the cells’ metabolic machinery.Red meats, liver, poultry, fish, shellfish, beans, peas, dried fruit, eggs. Certain foods contain phytates, which may inhibit iron absorption.
MagnesiumDRI Males: 420 mg Females: 320mgInvolved in bone mineralization, the building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscular contraction, and transmission of nerve impulseNuts, legumes, whole grains, beans, green leafy vegetables, seafood, chocolate.
ManganeseNo RDA or DRIInvolved in the formation of bone, as well as in enzymes involved in amino acid, cholesterol, and carbohydrate metabolism.Nuts, wholegrain cereals, beans, rice, dried fruits, green leafy vegetables.
MolybdenumNo RDA or DRIImportant in a variety of enzyme systems.Legumes, grains, organ meats.
PhosphorusDRI Males: 700 mg Females: 700mA principal mineral of the bones and teeth; part of every cell; maintains acid-base balance.Abundant in all animal foods.